I just had to fix this dang thing. After not finding a great solution with pictures on the internet to do this replacement I fixed my turntable and then took it apart to take photos. I know such a pain!
First step is to attach the belt:
Then place “the silver circle thing” back on the turntable. Make sure you can grab the belt when you place it back on. I put a quarter between the belt in and the whatever you call it so I could grab the belt.
Pull the belt so it fits around the coper thing. And with lots of general descriptions you are done!